Code: 12FOPT2 Optical Physics 2
Lecturer: doc. Dr. Ing. Ivan Richter Weekly load: 2+0 Assessment: Z,ZK
Department: 14112 Credits: 2 Semester: S
Description:
The lecture covers the basics of the diffractive optics. It discusses the scalar theory of diffraction and thoroughly analyses the approaches of Fresnel, Kirchhoff, Sommerfeld, and others. The rigorous theory of diffraction is also briefly mentioned. The second part of the lecture is devoted to the optical diffractive structures, thin and volume diffraction gratings, and synthetic diffractive structures. Various approaches to the analysis and synthesis of the diffractive elements are discussed. The last part is devoted to the optical holography, holographic techniques, recording materials, and various applications of holograms.
Contents:
1. Introduction - motivation, overview of applications of the diffractive structures.
2. Scalar theory of diffractoin - introduction to the scalar theory of diffraction, approaches of Fresnel, Kirchhoff, and Sommerfeld, inconsistencies of these approaches, elements of the rigorous theory of diffraction.
3. Fourier optics approach - linear transfer systems, diffraction of light as a transfer system.
4. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - the Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations to the scalar diffraction integral, limitations, examples, analytical solutions, the Cornu spiral and other graphical representations, numerical simulations.
5. Diffractive structures - thin gratings - the grating equation, the diffraction efficiency of the thin grating, examples, spatially limited gratings, the Fresnel diffraction on the thin grating - the Talbot effect.
6. Diffractive structures - volume gratings - the volume synchronism, the Bragg condition, selectivity of the volume grating, the Kogelnik's theory, approximative and rigorous approaches, numerical simulations.
7. Diffractive structures - general diffractive structures - the synthetic holography, various design approaches.
8. Optical holography - introduction to the optical holography, the transmission holograms, the reflection holograms, copying of holograms, various recording geometries, the rainbow holograms, the holographic stereograms, the color holograms, applications.
9. Realization of diffracitve structures - the recording materials, preparation and processing - SHG, DCG, polymers, photoresists, synthetic fabrication mehods - the e-beam lithography, laser lithography, the dynamic elements.
Recommended literature:
Key references:
[1] Fiala P., Richter I.: Optical Physics (Fyzikální optika), FJFI ČVUT, Praha, 2005. (in Czech)

Recommended references:
[2] Born M., Wolf E.: Principles of Optics, Pergamon Press, London, 1993 (sixth edition).
[3] Stratton J.A.: Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw - Hill, New York, 1941.
[6] Saleh B.E.A., Teich M.C.: Fundamentals of Photonics, J. Wiley, New York, 1991.
[7] Hecht E., Zajac A.: Optics, Addison Wesley, London, 1987 (second edition).
[8] Lipson S.G., Lipson H., Tannhauser D.S.: Optical Physics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995 (third edition).
[9] Goodman J.W.: Intoduction to Fourier Optics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1996 (second edition).
[10] Hutley M.C.: Diffraction gratings, Academic Press, London, 1982.
[11] Collier R.J., Burckhard C.B., Lin L.H.: Optical Holography, Academic Press, New York, 1971.
Keywords:
Diffraction, diffractive structures, scalar theory of diffraction, Fresnel diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction, Kirchhof integral, rigorous theory of diffraction, Fourier optics, thin grating, volume grating, Bragg diffraction, holography, computer generated holograms, synthetic diffractive structure, transmission hologram, reflection hologram, colour hologram, rainbow hologram, electron beam lithography, laser lithography, photoresist, silver halide gelatine, dichromated gelatine, photopolymer.