||Theory and Construction of Photovoltaic Cells
|Lecturer: RNDr. Jiøí Pfleger CSc.
||Weekly load: 2
The course is aimed to provide a theoretical background of the photovoltaic solar energy conversion. It is focused not only on the classical crystalline silicon cells but it follows also modern trends in exploiting new materials, including polymers, and new physical principles. The students will learn mathematical and theoretical background of the photovoltaic effect in various functional structures and materials. The part of the course will be dedicated to the practical and economical aspects of the application of solar cells in the distribution power networks. The life cycle assessment will provide students with better understanding of the relation between the photovoltaic cells application and environmental protection.
1. Historical overview, solar radiation on Earth surface, categories of photovoltaic cells according to the used technology (thick film or Si-wafer, thin film and non-Si technologies). 2. Physical principles of photovoltaics: excitations in semiconductors, photogeneration of free charge carriers, charge carrier transport, bulk and surface recombination. 3. Schottky diode equation, characteristic equation of real photovoltaic cell, influence of the serial resistance, of the shunt resistance, reverse saturation current and thermal voltage. Calculation of power conversion efficiency, theoretical limits of the conversion efficiency, Shockley-Queisser limit. 4. P-N junction as a photodiode. Photoconductive and photovoltaic regime. Lifetime of minority charge carriers. 5. P-N junction: characterization according to formation, crystal structure and concentration gradient. 6. Fabrication of photovoltaic cells. 7. Application of advanced technologies for power conversion efficiency enhancement. 8. Thin film technologies (amorphous Si, microcrystalline Si, CdTe, CIS, CIGS). 9. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (Grätzel cell). 10. Polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. 11. How to increase the power conversion efficiency (concentrator solar cells, two-photon absorption, exciton fussion, multiple junction cells, tandem cells) . 12. Application of solar cells in distribution power networks. Energy accumulation. 13. Life cycle assessment, economical aspects of solar cells application, environmental protection.
- Recommended literature:
Key references: ^^. Peter Würfel, Uli Würfel: 2nd updated and expanded ed.. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2009, ^^. W.R. Fahrner, M. Muehlbauer, H.C. Neitzert. Uetikon-Zürich: Trans Tech Publications, 2006, ^^. Mario Pagliaro, Giovanni Palmisano, and Rosaria Ciriminna. Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2008, ^^. Stephen J. Fonash: 2nd ed.. Burlington: Academic Press, 2010. ^^Recommended references: ^^. Bernhard Weller... [et al.]. -- 1st ed.. -- München : Institut für internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2010., Edited by Lewis Fraas, Larry Partain. 2nd ed.. Hoboken: Wiley, 2010., ^^. Roger A. Messenger, Jerry Ventre. 3rd ed.. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010.
- photovoltaic cell, PN junction, photogeneration
- W ... winter semester (usually October - February)
- S ... spring semester (usually March - June)
- W,S ... both semesters
Mode of completion of the course:
- A ... Assessment (no grade is given to this course but credits are awarded. You will receive only P (Passed) of F (Failed) and number of credits)
- GA ... Graded Assessment (a grade is awarded for this course)
- EX ... Examination (a grade is awarded for this course)
- A, EX ... Examination (the award of Assessment is a precondition for taking the Examination in the given subject, a grade is awarded for this course)
Weekly load (hours per week):
- P ... lecture
- C ... seminar
- L ... laboratory
- R ... proseminar
- S ... seminar