Anatomy and physiology II links to Anatomy and Physiology I. The subject covers functional aspects of particular organs and their systems.
1 - Cardiovascular system I (the organs of the cardiovascular system and their functions, identification and location of the major parts of the heart and the function of each part, the pathway of the blood through the heart and the vessels of the coronary circulation, the cardiac cycle, the parts of a normal ECG pattern).
2 - Cardiovascular system II (the structures and functions of the major types of blood vessels, the mechanisms that aid in returning venous blood to the heart, blood pressure, the pulmonary and systemic circuits, the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary and systemic circuits, life-span changes in the cardiovascular system).
3 - Blood (the general characteristics of the blood and its major functions, the formed elements of the blood, the life cycle of a red blood cell, control of red blood cell production, the five types of white blood cells and the function(s) of each type, the major components of blood plasma and the functions of each, hemostasis, the major steps in hemostasis, coagulation, the basis for blood typing, blood reactions between fetal and maternal tissues).
4 - Lymphatic system and immunity (the general functions of the lymphatic system, the locations of the major lymphatic pathways, formation of tissue fluid and lymph, the function of lymph, a lymph node and its major functions, the location of the major chains of lymph nodes, the functions of the thymus and spleen).
5 - Lymphatic system and immunity (specific and nonspecific defenses and examples of each, two major types of lymphocytes, the major types of immunoglobulins, primary and secondary immune responses, active and passive immunity, allergic reactions, tissue rejection reactions, and autoimmunity, life-span changes in immunity).
6 - Endocrine system (endocrine and exocrine glands, classification of hormons, targeting of steroid and nonsteroid hormones, negative feedback mechanisms of regulation of hormonal secretion, control of hormonal secretion by nerve system, the locations of the major endocrine glands, and list of hormones they secrete, the general functions of the various hormones, physical and psychological stress, the general stress response, the changes associated with aging of the endocrine system).
7 - Urinary system (organs of the urinary system and their general functions, locations of the kidneys and their structure, functions of the kidneys, nephron and functions of its major parts, glomerular filtrate, urine formation, structure of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, micturition, urinary system changes with age).
8 - Reproductive system (general functions of the male reproductive system, parts of the male reproductive system, process of meiosis, process of spermatogenesis, male hormones, female reproductive system, parts of the female reproductive system, process of oogenesis, female hormones).
9 - Reproductive system and human growth and development (menstrual cycle, pregnancy, birth process, growth and development, primary germ layers, formation and function of the placenta, fetus, newborn, development between the neonatal period and death).
10 - Nervous system I. Basic structure and function (the general functions of the nervous system, the general structure of a neuron, classification of neurons, four types of neuroglial cells and the functions of each, regeneration of injured nerve fiber, action potencial, the conduction of a nerve impulse, transmittion of nerve impulse, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials).
11 - Nervous system II. Divisions of the nervous system (the coverings of the brain and spinal cord, the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid, the structure of the spinal cord and its major functions, a reflex arc, reflex behavior, the major parts of the brain and the functions of each, motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex, hemisphere dominance, the stages in memory storage, the functions of the limbic system and the reticul
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